It is like following a river with many tributaries and channels, several of which interconnect. Since the blood has already passed through the systemic capillaries, it will be relatively low in oxygen concentration. The lumbar portions of the abdominal wall and spinal cord are drained by a series of lumbar veins, usually four on each side. They are tiny branches of arteries that lead to capillaries and help maintain the pressure and blood flow in the body. Blood leaving the digestive organs is rich in nutrients and other chemicals absorbed from food. It arises from the left ventricle and eventually descends to the abdominal region, where it bifurcates at the level of the fourth lumbar vertebra into the two common iliac arteries.
The femoral circumflex vein forms a loop around the femur just inferior to the trochanters and drains blood from the areas in proximity to the head and neck of the femur. For example, the left subclavian artery becomes the axillary artery as it passes through the body wall and into the axillary region, and then becomes the brachial artery as it flows from the axillary region into the upper arm or brachium. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. The common iliac arteries provide blood to the pelvic region and ultimately to the lower limbs. The small saphenous vein located on the lateral surface of the leg drains blood from the superficial regions of the lower leg and foot, and flows into to the popliteal vein. Each adrenal vein drains the adrenal or suprarenal glands located immediately superior to the kidneys. To facilitate the movement of blood, some veins contain many one-way valves that prevent blood from flowing away from the heart.
This article does not any. The internal carotid artery first forms the carotid sinus and then reaches the brain via the carotid canal and carotid foramen, emerging into the cranium via the foramen lacerum. The posterior tibial vein drains the posterior surface of the tibia and joins the popliteal vein. For example, you will find a pair of femoral arteries and a pair of femoral veins, with one vessel on each side of the body. The internal thoracic artery, or mammary artery, supplies blood to the thymus, the pericardium of the heart, and the anterior chest wall. The unique shape of erythrocytes gives these cells a high surface area to volume ratio and allows them to fold to fit into thin capillaries. These arteries supply blood to the deep muscles of the thigh as well as ventral and lateral regions of the integument.
Unlike arteries, veins contain valves. In colder weather, there is more constriction of the superficial veins and blood is diverted deeper where the body can retain more of the heat. The Aorta The aorta is the largest artery in the body. The radial vein and the ulnar vein parallel the bones of the forearm and join together at the antebrachium to form the brachial vein, a deep vein that flows into the axillary vein in the brachium. The subclavian artery runs into the axillary region where it becomes known as the axillary artery. Systemic veins transport blood from the body tissue to the right atrium of the heart. The pulmonary veins are a set of veins that deliver oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart and the Systemic veins drain the tissues of the body and deliver deoxygenated blood to the heart.
The coronary sinus is a vein on the posterior side of the heart that returns deoxygenated blood from the myocardium to the vena cava. Heart veins that go directly to the right atrium: the anterior cardiac veins, the Thebesian veins. The right gonadal vein empties directly into the inferior vena cava, and the left gonadal vein empties into the left renal vein. The remaining lumbar veins drain directly into the inferior vena cava. The endothelium lines the entire circulatory system, all the way to the interior of the heart, where it is called the endocardium. Overview of systemic veins Systemic veins return blood to the right atrium.
Two additional single vessels arise from the abdominal aorta. The hepatic portal system carries blood to the liver for processing before it enters circulation. The Oblique Vein of the Left Atrium v. Both the uterine arteries and vaginal arteries, which distribute blood to the vagina, are branches of the internal iliac artery. In some veins, the tunica intima layer also contains to keep blood flowing in a single direction. For example, the carries blood into the brachial arm and cephalic head regions.
The anterior tibial vein drains the area near the tibialis anterior muscle and combines with the posterior tibial vein and the fibular vein to form the popliteal vein. Large veins feed into these two veins, and smaller veins into these. Each subclavian artery supplies blood to the arms, chest, shoulders, back, and central nervous system. The vessels make up two closed systems of tubes that begin and end at the heart. The hepatic portal vein delivers materials from these digestive and circulatory organs directly to the liver for processing. The is a series of veins or venules that directly connect two. It can cause the affected limb to swell, and cause pain and an overlying skin rash.
These fibers enable the veins and arteries to stretch a limited amount. In colder weather, there is more constriction of the superficial veins and blood is diverted deeper where the body can retain more of the heat. The wall of an artery consists of three layers. The remainder of the blood supply from the thorax drains into the azygos vein. The superficial veins do not normally have direct arterial counterparts, but in addition to returning blood, they also make contributions to the maintenance of body temperature. These vessels will be described more fully later in this section.
Monocytes develop into cells called macrophages that engulf and ingest pathogens and the dead cells from wounds or infections. Another phenomenon that can make the study of vessels challenging is that names of vessels can change with location. Arterioles are narrower arteries that branch off from the ends of arteries and carry blood to capillaries. Although it does branch and supply blood to the region near the head of the humerus via the humeral circumflex arteries , the majority of the vessel continues into the upper arm, or brachium, and becomes the brachial artery. Coronary Circulation The heart has its own set of blood vessels that provide the myocardium with the oxygen and nutrients necessary to pump blood throughout the body. Normally, the right posterior aortic sinus does not give rise to a vessel. Arterioles, like arteries, are able to use smooth muscle to control their aperture and regulate blood flow and blood pressure.
Each lung has two sets of pulmonary veins, a and one. The fibular or peroneal artery branches from the posterior tibial artery. As the pulmonary trunk reaches the superior surface of the heart, it curves posteriorly and rapidly bifurcates divides into two branches, a left and a right pulmonary artery. The mixed blood drains into typical pulmonary veins, whereas the bronchial artery branches remain separate and drain into bronchial veins described later. The hemiazygos vein does not drain directly into the superior vena cava but enters the brachiocephalic vein via the superior intercostal vein. These parallel the vertebral arteries and travel through the transverse foramina of the cervical vertebrae.