We could see the difference between the old and the newly constructed factories, between the old and the new houses. In agriculture green revolution continues to be confined largely to wheat and rice crop. India remains one of the poorest nations of the world even after 50 years of economic planning. The occupation of this territory was accompanied by a concentration of Japanese troops at the frontier of the U. In all these industrial towns which I visited, a new city is growing up, a city on a definite plan with wide streets in the process of being beautified by trees and grass plots, houses of the most modern type, schools, hospitals, workers' clubs and the inevitable creche or nursery, where the children of working mothers are cared for. And in these two years the workers have already forgotten about unemployment, about its burden and its horrors.
Stormy and prolonged applause, increasing to an ovation. That is the position in regard to the questions concerning the growth of Soviet trade. It is obvious that no self-respecting government and no self-respecting party could adopt such a fatal point of view. To do this it is taking risks, it is working enthusiastically with an energy that has never been seen in the world before, it has tremendous difficulties inseparable from this attempt to build up socialism in a vast, undeveloped country isolated from the rest of the world. And, lastly, the special merits and advantages of the Soviet system of economy, which has within it the colossal potentialities necessary for overcoming difficulties. Which represents when Stalin began collectivization and the kulkaks starve because they don't have enough food for themselves.
Unfortunately, I cannot now stop to deal with shortcomings and mistakes, as the limits of the report I was instructed to make do not give me sufficient scope for this. This is true of Moscow, with hundreds of streets and squares paved, with new suburbs, new buildings, and a cordon of new factories on its outskirts, and it is true of smaller and less important cities. Do not all these facts testify to the superiority of the Soviet system of agriculture over the capitalist system?. Life expectancy rose from 36 to 57 years, city housing standards improved and urban incomes increased by 40 per cent. Stalin is at present supreme, but if there is much more hunger and suffering his position will be weakened. It is precisely because they are dying and their days are numbered that they will go on from one form of attack to another, sharper form, appealing to the backward sections of the population and mobilising them against the Soviet regime.
Don't underrate the Russians or their plans and don't make the mistake of believing that the Soviet Government must crash. A Trans-Siberian air-line will soon revolutionise the postal and passenger services between Europe and Japan. The exact year as to when Stalin was in power is controversial. By 1952 industrial levels were almost double then 1941 levels. Is it not a fact that with this currency we built Magnitostroi, Dnieprostroi, Kuznetskstroi, the Stalingrad and Kharkov tractor works, the Gorky and Moscow automobile works, hundreds of thousands of collective farms, and thousands of state farms? It must be remembered that Russia, of course, produced machines and tools, but only of the simplest kind.
In the essay below, I will elaborate how Stalin achieved this transformation of Russia. He pushed his idea that if Russia did not catch up soon with the competing super powers, Russia would be completely annihilated. Agriculture production was damaged but industrial production did increase causing the First Five-Year Plan to not be a complete fail. Furthermore, standards of living showed little signs of improvement. We had only one coal and metallurgical base — in the Ukraine — and it was with difficulty that we made do with that. What has the Party achieved in carrying out the programme of the five-year plan in four years in the sphere of agriculture? In the United States, according to official figures, the number of employed workers in the manufacturing industries alone dropped from 8,500,000 in 1928 to 5,500,000 in 1932; and according to the figures of the American Federation of Labour, the number of unemployed in the United States, in all industries, at the end of 1932, was 11,000,000.
The factories are clean, well ventilated and well lit. People were made to work hard and the influx of women and peasants into the workforce strengthened the economy as output was increased, wages even rose in cities. Die Neue Freie Presse New Free Press —an Austrian bourgeois newspaper, which reflected the views of the commercial and industrial bourgeoisie and of banking circles; was published in Vienna from 1864 to 1939. We did not have a big and modern chemical industry. The Holodomor, a term for the mass man-made famine in Ukraine from 1932 to 1933, is thought to have been an attempt by the government to punish Ukrainian peasants for resisting collectivization. Still larger numbers used to come every year to the factory gates and swell the ranks of the unemployed. The Five Year Plan was an attempt by to boost her industry and set her on the path to become a world class power.
Besides you cannot figure in what war will do. Secondly, we now have a fairly widely developed state industry and a whole system of collective farms and state farms, which provide the state with huge reserves of agricultural and manufactured goods for the development of Soviet trade. We must bear in mind that the growth of the power of the Soviet state will intensify the resistance of the last remnants of the dying classes. They are too weak and impotent to withstand the measures adopted by the Soviet Government. As well as strengthening the economy and achieving military strength this expansion gave Russia enough strength to resist and eventually beat the Nazis in 1941. The five-year plan in the sphere of agriculture was a five-year plan of collectivisation. This had adverse effects on rural areas, with grain production not keeping pace with industrial and population growth.
One sees so many changes in the Russian scene after two years that one gives up trying to imagine what Russia will be like in another 10 years. The Soviet government praised Stakhanov and gave him special treatment, while movies and songs sang his praises. You will not be able to do so; for there is no such country, and there has never been one. But did the Party have a real possibility of implementing the policy of accelerating development to the utmost? Firstly, because of the increase in output of food-grains, India has achieved near self-sufficiency in food. Has it fulfilled this programme, or has it failed? The export of grain last year astonished the world although it was only one-half of the average pre-war exports. Russia is forging ahead while all too many of our factories and shipyards lie idle and approximately 3,000,000 of our people despairingly seek work. And owing to the necessity of going through a certain period of preparation, this switch resulted in these factories suspending production for four months, which could not but affect the fulfilment of the total programme of output for 1932, as fixed in the five-year plan.
The idea of wreckers generally provided a convenient excuse for why the Soviet Union often failed to meet the goals of the five-year plans. Obviously, this is no longer necessary. We are 50 to 100 years behind the advanced countries. Jokes have been made about the five-year plan, and its failure has been predicted. And, indeed, it has achieved tremendous successes in this sphere; for it has fulfilled the programme of the five-year plan of collectivisation three times over.
What did they carry with them into these places? R should overtake and exceed other capitalist countries, he aspired for Russia to become strong enough to survive , then take over the rest of the world and force his extreme views on neighboring nations. The main feature of the first Five-Year Plan called for the rapid industrialization of the Soviet economy. They both have year around plans. Whereas by the end of 1932 the volume of industrial output in the U. Air-lines now penetrate into the distant solitudes of Siberia. Besides thousands of enthusiastic citizens wanting to work, thousands of. Her exports of grain will depend on the harvest, but if her crop is as good this year as it was last year, then Canada is going to suffer still further and the grain market will be seriously disturbed.