Example: Japan, where the appoints the on the nomination of the. There were coalition governments formed under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and then Dr. In a presidential system, all executive power is vested in one person: the president. The bureaucrats under the system assume greater authority and consolidate their own position to use their political masters as mere tools. The Panchayat Raj system for local governance has been institutionalized by the 73rd and 74th constiturional amendments. It makes easy for the government to pass the legislation in the parliament and implement them. There were short term governments in the Centre lasting for about less than a year or so.
Although the proceedings in the supreme court arise out of the judgment or orders made by the subordinate courts, of late the supreme court has started entertaining matters in which interest of the public at large is involved. Other ministers are either as union cabinet ministers, who are heads of the various ministries; or ministers of state, who are junior members who report directly to one of the cabinet ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government; or ministers of state independent charges , who do not report to a cabinet minister. The prime minister is chosen by members of the legislature and in practice is the leader of the majority party in the legislature. When the Prime Minister resigns, the entire Council of Ministers has to go. The type of government that functioned in India before independence in 1947 was very much similar to the British model of parliamentary.
Leadership of Prime Minister 7. It was abrogated by the usurper Gen Ayub and he later promulgated new experiment in the form of 2 nd Constitution 1962, which had the Presidential form of Government. The won elections in 1989, but its government managed to hold on to power for only two years. Summarizing the said developments, we see that while there was an absolute majority in the legislature, there was stability and favorable political atmosphere for economic growth and development of the country. In case national emergency is declared and the Lok Sabha is dissolved then the Rajya Sabha becomes the Parliament.
Lok Sabha here in India. Close collaboration between the Executive and the legislature In this system the executive and the legislature work in close cooperation. The leader is also chosen after political considerations and there is no autonomy and efficiency in the government. The cabinet is politically answerable to the National Council and can be dismissed by the National Council through a. Also, the President has the power to appoint competent and expert persons as ministers.
The development of the supremacy of Parliament stemmed from the English Civil War and expanded over since and is now a dominant theme in British politics. The state treats all religions as equal and there is no official state religion. Also, the validity of foreign treaties entered into by the President can be obtained after they have been ratified by the Legislature. In India, the government power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers who collectively enjoy the confidence of the House and who advise the President on how the executive powers of the Union will be exercised. Further, election of Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014 was presidential style in spirit.
The Parliamentary form of Government was considered to be more democratic and according to Dr. However, it is not the only country with the Presidential system. The President may invite a coalition of parties to form the government, in case, no party has got majority. Cabinet, ministries and agencies The organizational structure of a department of the Government of India. But the handful of ministers are not expected to deal personally with the various problems of modern administration. Other parties India has a , where there are a number of national as well as regional parties. There have been summits like G20 and Rio+20, of which India has been a signatory, thereby achieving the objective of developing relations with other countries and participation in the issues prevailing in the world.
The Civil Procedure Code, the Indian Penal Code, and the Criminal Procedure Code laid down by parliamentary legislation form the basic Civil and Criminal laws. The Presidential system is superior in this respect. State legislatures are bicameral State Assembly and Legislative Council in only a few States; in most of the States these are unicameral Legislative Assembly. The Presidential system is largely free from these drawbacks, as well as from rivalry and friction between the party bosses and the ministerial wing. Some parliaments in this model are elected using a , such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and India, while others use , such as Ireland and New Zealand. Political Homogeneity The members of the Council of Ministers should belong to a single political party and remain committed to a definite political ideology, to remain a homogenous body. Responsibility of the executive The executive in a Parliamentary system is responsible to the legislature for all its actions.
The Prime Minister then appoints the. Under his leadership, there was a relaxation of the economic policies and encouraged foreign investments through abolishment of license raj system, restrictions on imports and foreign currency. Symbols are used in Indian political system as an identity of political parties and so that illiterate people can also vote by recognizing symbols of party. At the lower level, there are section officers, assistant section officers, upper division clerks, lower division clerks and other secretarial staff. This clearly depicts that it creates a highly critical situation for the country, stagnating all its activities. For example, in Germany in 2005, deliberately allowed his government to lose a confidence motion, in order to call an early election. Indian President is the head of the state and exercises his or her power directly or through officers subordinate to him.