In-text citations Inserting citations parenthetically Most of your citations should follow this method. The central place theory predicts that retrieval costs increase linearly with distance of the resource from the central place Rockwood and Hubbell 1987. Do not simply list your raw data. Any patterns or trends observed in your experiment or indicated in your illustrations should be noted as well. Even if you don't write a whole introduction, you need to state the purpose of the experiment, or why you did it. Note that this referencing technique indicates that the information came from Klassen and Black's and Weikert et al.
No Author Literature Cited Each reference used must be listed on a Literature Cited page. Non-random patterns of roost emergence in big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus. If you must use and website for which no author is listed, first make sure it is a reliable source and then use these. Title: The title states the focus of your experiment. In some cases, it is legitimate to compare outcomes with classmates, not to change your answer, but to look for any anomalies between the groups and discuss those. The theory of optimal foraging and its relation to central foraging was examined by using the beaver as a model.
This finding agrees with our hypothesis that beavers are likely to show a preference for certain tree species. Graphs and figures must both be labeled with a descriptive title. Or Unlike birds Robinson, 1969 , newts Smith, 1989 and mammals Johnson, 1979 use odors to attract mates. The optimal foraging theory assumes that animals feed in a way that maximizes their net rate of energy intake per unit time Pyke et al. Results Overall, beavers showed a preference for certain species of trees, and their preference was based on distance from the central place.
Write it as if you were giving direction for someone else to do the lab. The reader will know that the source has many authors and that they can be found in the literature cited portion of the paper. When you use information from sources, you need to tell the readers where the information came from and where the readers can locate the sources. Conclusion The purpose of this lab was to learn about the optimal foraging theory by measuring tree selection in beavers. A size-distance relation in food selection by beavers.
Science writing is more formulaic and repetitious than other types of writing. The details pertaining to those questions will be written about in the Methods or Results section later. It is your responsibility to find out how to properly cite the sources you have used. We also learned that foraging behaviors and food selection is not always straightforward. Listing an article from a book Toole, B. Usually, the introduction is one paragraph that explains the objectives or purpose of the lab.
We have listed a few common examples here. List names alphabetically by last name, as well as the year of publication, title, publisher location, and publisher, as follows: Randolph, M. Experimental Procedure describes the process in chronological order. Here, the publication is simply included in parentheses following the information that is being cited. The lack of any observed difference in mean circumference between chewed and not chewed trees does not agree with our hypothesis that beavers will prefer smaller trees to larger ones. An abstract is a concise summary of your experiment. Discussion In this section, which is considered the most important part of lab report formatting, you can be a bit more creative and elaborate by interpreting your results, expanding on them, and noting general conclusions.
The first historical extinction of a marine invertebrate in an ocean basin. If your professor says you can simply state that you followed the procedure in the manual, be sure you still document occasions when you did not follow that exactly e. This is where you interpret the data and determine whether or not a hypothesis was accepted. Paraphrase and cite the source instead. Results: The results section should include all tabulated data from observations during your experiment.
Summer diet optimization by beaver. Central place foraging by beavers Castor Canadensis : a test of foraging predictions and the impact of selective feeding on the growth form of cottonwoods Populus fremontii. It may be helpful to provide a figure to diagram your experimental setup. Activation of sea-urchin eggs by a calcium ionophore. These were determined using the Debye-Sherrer powder camera method of X-ray diffraction.
Always give credit where credit is due on your report. Use the first word or first few words of the title, followed by an ellipsis three dots with a space before and after and the year. Another important reason for having a literature cited page is that it allows anyone who is unsure of your data to go back and verify that you reported everything correctly, thus eliminating any uncertainty. Full journal article title exactly as it appears in the journal. When a complete laboratory report is requested, it should include: 1.