One of the biggest errors students make in their discussion is exaggeration, say experts. Outline the limitations of your study, and suggest a future line of work. It would be appropriate to raise some questions about a particular area of abnormal psychology, for example: Psychological disorder diagnosis. Before writing down the manuscript, determination of 2—3 titles increases the motivation of the authors towards the manuscript. The discussion section should remain focused on the findings of your study.
Numerous scientists have told me that when reading a paper they first look at the Abstract to get an overview of the topic and the purported findings. The Purpose of A Discussion Section The best way to make sure that you are correctly approaching the discussion element of your research paper is to aggressively edit the composition with an unbiased perspective. Each result, which confirms or refutes your assumptions, should be noted in an unbiased manner to increase the credibility of your study. The previous studies can be an explanation or reinforcement of your findings. It is more common in longer papers because it helps the reader to better understand each finding. Although usual style requirements e. In fact editors of the journal will not reserve the limited space in their journal for articles yielding similar conclusions.
Besides application of a template which contains the intended clear-cut messages to be followed will contribute to the communication of net messages. However longer time periods spent in order to concentrate on the subject matter can be boring, and lead to loss of motivation. On the other hand, manuscript writing process should begin before the completion of the study even the during project stage. Which aspects do you focus on when writing your research results section? Since they are unrelated both to the author s , and subject matter of the manuscript, these referees can review our manuscript more objectively. Writing manuscripts to describe study outcomes, although not easy, is the main task of an academician.
Accordingly, the findings of the study are determined in order of their importance, and a paragraph is constructed for each finding. The judgment of what is general or specific is difficult at first, but with practice and reading of the scientific literature you will develop e firmer sense of your audience. You need to report the research results with enough details so that readers can see which statistical analyses were conducted and validated to justify or disprove your hypotheses. Probably the most important mistakes made related to the writing process of a manuscript include lack of a clear message of the manuscript, inclusion of more than one main idea in the same text or provision of numerous unrelated results at the same time so as to reinforce the assertions of the manuscript. The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order: Experimental process Section of Paper What did I do in a nutshell?. Thus newly arisen connotations, and self-brain gyms will be promptly written down.
Explain what the results mean and how they are important. Alienation periods can cause loss of time because of need for recurrent literature reviews. In general, provide enough how much, how long, when, etc. Example A Example B Results On observation of each strain of E. If your results differ from others' findings, you should try to explain why, says Nolen-Hoeksema. It is most usual to place the statement of purpose near the end of the Introduction, often as the topic sentence of the final paragraph.
Remember that no is not the same as no difference, and you can begin to explain this in your discussion section. Revise your introduction as needed. By exploring those kinds of implications, students address what Scholl considers the most important-and often overlooked-purpose of the discussion: to directly explain why others should care about your findings. The purpose of the Discussion section is to explain what your results mean and what contribution your paper makes to the field of study. There are important points that should be considered to help achieve fairness and balance —. External referees are our colleagues who did not contribute to data collection of our study in any way, but we can request their opinions about the subject matter of the manuscript.
The hypotheses have been outlined in the introduction and may have been reiterated at the beginning of the results section. However, do not offer recommendations which could have been easily addressed within the study. Another approach concerning this issue is to accomplish manuscript writing process within a week. In contrast, the Discussion can be envisioned as an inverted cone or funnel, from which the flow of information goes from narrow top to broad bottom. Your discussion should begin with a cogent, one-paragraph summary of the study's key findings, but then go beyond that to put the findings into context, says Stephen Hinshaw, PhD, chair of the psychology department at the University of California, Berkeley. In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots.
These negative results that do not support a particular hypothesis should be noted in the results section, and then explained in the Discussion section. Be wary of mistaking the reiteration of a specific finding for an interpretation because it may confuse the reader. In conclusion, academic writing is similar to other skills, and practice makes perfect. Daily working requirements unrelated to the manuscript writing might intervene, and prolong manuscript writing process. Besides the target journal to be selected should be ready to accept articles with similar concept.