Pioneers in Anthropology such as Julian Steward developed a useful categorization scheme dividing societies into bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states based on their organizational characteristics. Tribes are a way of positioning a people under the political umbrella of a nation. Finally there is the political organization known as a state. Some of responsibilities of the chief include redistributing goods among all citizens, although the chief will keep more goods than the rest of the citizens, and overseeing disagreements amongst citizens and meting out rewards and punishments according to his or her will. These Chiefs gain reputations, and they had legends that would overtime or at the time gather brothers, and cousins, and sister, and friend, and they would have descendant, as would warriors who fought along side the chiefs, so these would result in an even greater number of people who has ancestors in the legend.
But it does not work well on the large scale level. They are forced to due to or are conquered. The difference between the two is not small. Unlike bands they have evolved domestication practices of plants and animals, and because of this they may have economic systems that are either horticulture based or pastoral based. Moscow: Center for Civilizational Studies,.
In 1936, the British archaeologist V. Having a large population forces the society to become more complex. If the annul tribute is distributed in a way that makes the majority of the people happy then the leader will be much praised even if the leader retains much of the tribute for himself and his family. Each one describes a piece of the puzzle. This blog is focused on public outreach and educating the public and my students on topics related to the four fields of anthropology, the study of people in the contexts of the past and present.
Due to this nomadic lifestyle, meaning moving from place to place, usually in search of food, bands are most often made up of hunter-gatherers. The first response was to shift the focus of foraging to small game and wild plant foods, especially. Chiefdoms are the first type of society where significant differences of wealth, prestige, and authority exist between groups of people. Horticulture and pastoralism were successful as long as the population density did not increase much. They may also make token, symbolic redistributions of food and other goods. Today hunting is something that is not allowed without a license or permission.
In fact, many chiefdoms practice redistribution, in which goods are accumulated by one central person or power, who then decides how to allocate them among the people. Some scholars contest the utility of the chiefdom model for archaeological inquiry. History and archaeology amply illustrate this fact and document the trend through time toward a smaller number of larger sociopolitical units. During the 1950's, the German historian Karl Wittfogel and the American archaeologist Julian Steward created an ecological explanation for state formation that has come to be known as the hydraulic theory. These lesser chiefs in turn collect from those below them, from communities close to their own center.
Centralized state governments would have developed to mobilize and direct armies. New regulatory problems were created by these features and that gave rise to more complex relations and linkages. Chiefdoms also developed a new system called a redistributive economy example: irrigation systems to help feed everybody. It is probably more realistic to think of the evolution of ancient states as having multiple causes that were intertwined with the unique set of environmental, social, and historical circumstances of each region. This of course was very much a direct result of being located on the Nile. However when sacking barbarians won a battles, the Saxon Chief himself would win an administrative division, and the governmental rights would go to his descendant since they were barbarians and appointed ad hoc administrative duties rather using more sophisticated methods of administrating government. The people will not all be related, will not be able to know ever other member of the society.
In other words, when to move and when to stay is usually based on group consensus rather than one governing official calling the shots. Political systems vary from culture to culture, and can take the form of a band, tribe, chiefdom, or a state. Leaders are able to justify their raise in the level of control in their community by creating a new social aspect that requires overseeing. For this reason, the wealthy and the elite tend to hold a good deal of power within states. States have more formalized governance and political structure. Chiefdoms and kingdoms are defined terms in anthropology and are not the same but different.
Like Ashima said, most societies were first conquered by a larger political faction, and did not give consent. It's in part because all primates, including humans, are social creatures, and the idea of being on one's own is terrifying. The ethnogenesis of the provides an example of the creation of a new sociopolitical entity. Nor does state refer to a time period. Religion is used as a way to explain the world around communities, and leaders of the communities are in a unique position to maintain their power position. In my opinion the biggest problem faced by a hunter gatherer society is the population.